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Author Topic: Mycotoxicoses and causes  (Read 4619 times)
Pheasant Hollow Farm
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EST. 2001 Owner/Operator Located in Slate, WV

« on: September 06, 2008, 11:16:48 AM »

I came across this when someone had ask about Supplement Feeding Deer (WhiteTailed) corn, and some of the reasons associated with fungus and contamination from either packaged in bags or still on the stalks.

I have also found that there are other grains that are associated as well.

Mycotoxicoses
Introduction

Aflatoxicosis and a few others that are a concern to gamebirds and poultry in this chart showing symptoms: http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/htm/bc/ttox02.htm


Aflatoxicosis:
Just a short excerpt: Aflatoxins are produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A parasiticus on peanuts, soybeans, corn (maize), and other cereals either in the field or during storage when moisture content and temperatures are sufficiently high for mold growth. Usually, this means consistent day and night temperatures >70°F. The toxic response and disease in mammals and poultry varies in relation to species, sex, age, nutritional status, and the duration of intake and level of aflatoxins in the ration. Earlier recognized disease outbreaks called “moldy corn toxicosis,” “poultry hemorrhagic syndrome,” and “ Aspergillus toxicosis” may have been caused by aflatoxins.
The remaining of this can be found here in the on-line merck vet manual http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/212202.htm

From:



This is what MSU has to say about it:

Poultry
Fungal diseases

Aspergillosis (Brooder Pneumonia)

Aspergillosis has been observed in almost all birds and animals, including man. The disease is observed in one of two forms; acute outbreaks with high morbidity and high mortality in young birds, and a chronic condition affecting adult birds. It is more of a problem in turkeys than in chickens.

The condition is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a mold or fungus-type organism. Occasionally other types of molds are involved. These organisms are present in the environment of all poultry. They grow readily on many substances such as litter, feed, rotten wood and other similar materials.

The bird comes in contact with the organisms through contaminated feed, litter or premises. The disease is not contagious and does not spread from one bird to another. Most healthy birds can withstand repeated exposure to these organisms. Inhalation of large amounts of the infectious form of the mold or reduced resistance of the bird apparently results in infection. In adult turkeys, the disease more often affects the male.

In the acute form in young birds, main symptoms are gasping, sleepiness, loss of appetite and sometimes convulsions and death. Occasionally the organism invades the brain, causing paralysis or other forms of nervous symptoms. The more chronic form in older birds usually results in loss of appetite, gasping or coughing and a rapid loss of body weight. Mortality is usually low and only a few birds are affected at one time.

The disease produces hard nodular areas in the lungs and an infection of the air sacs. Sometimes the air sac lesions are similar to those produced by infectious sinusitis or CRD. In some birds, colonies of mold growth can be seen on the air sac membranes.

Diagnosis is usually made from history, symptoms and lesions. It may be necessary to base diagnosis on microscopic lesions.

The disease can usually be prevented by avoiding moldy litter, feed or premises. There is no treatment for the affected flock. Cleaning and disinfecting the equipment is often helpful.


More on this is here:
http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/disfungi.htm


This is what Avian Bio Tech has to say:

SUMMARY OF AVIAN DISEASES: FUNGAL, NUTRITIONAL, TUMORS, PARASITES

                          & MISCELLANEOUS

                            WRAIR SEMINAR

                              22 OCT 86

                        MICHAEL S. RAND, CPT, VC

                             AFLATOXICOSIS

OCCURRENCE

Young birds appear to be more susceptible than adult birds.

ETIOLOGY

Most often caused by Aspergillus flavus growing in peanut meal,
corn meal, cottonseed meal cake, many grains and in poultry litter.


CLINICAL SIGNS

Initially: lethargy, loss of appetite, impaired growth, ruffled
feathers and drooping wings.

Later: ataxia, opisthotonos and convulsions.

In chickens, there is impaired and uneven growth in the flock with
low mortality. It may be subclinical and unrecognized.

MORBIDITY & MORTALITY

Variable but often high.


More on this can be found here:
http://avianbiotech.com/Diseases/aviandis.txt

More information as well:
This is a pdf file with good information as well from the usda:
http://archive.gipsa.usda.gov/reference-library/handbooks/aflatoxin/aflatoxin-ch01.pdf


So you see it can be the food source that we overlook.

Ask your FEED SUPPLIER especially if it is mixed to your specifications, if their grains are certified or checked. Also ask how long the process feed has been sitting around. Look for any indications of floor dampness in there warehouse and especially water stains on the bags.

Smell the feed when you open the bags. We all know what mildew smells like.

Steve
Pheasant Hollow Farm
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Specializing in Manchurian Ring-necked Pheasants and Melanistic Mutant Pheasants for release, propagation and the hunting community. Licensed by the State of WV. DNR# D6-16-16-GF1
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What do you mean I have to press 1 for english.

« Reply #1 on: September 08, 2008, 09:58:12 AM »

Great info!!!!!!A big concern especially in the south...
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Fivehollers
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Miss Hannah Mae Pike

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« Reply #2 on: September 10, 2008, 05:59:36 PM »

The bad thing about this mycosis...is that human infection is possible. This "mycosis" is a spore former...which means it forms a capsule to protect itself unlike many infectious "molds" which form a slime layer that can be cleaned off and killed with bleach or some other sanitizing method...the spore can live in many conditions can withdtand heat and cold. The "bug" can go dormant and when conditions are right..."bloom". It can make you VERY ILL and the Antibiotic used to combat this infection can shut down the kidneys. I know we are all concerned with bringing in foreign germs that can hurt our flocks, we need to be as diligent with our own health.

Lori Pike RN
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Five Hollers Quail Farm
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