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Japanese Quail - References

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Japanese Quail Farming
Nutrition Requirements
Practical Feeding
References

  1. Chang, S.I. and McGinnis, J. (1967). Vitamin D deficiency in adult quail and chickens and effects of estrogen and testosterone treatments. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 124: 1131-1135.
  2. Charles, O.W., Roland, D.A. and Edwards, H.M. Jr. (1972). Thiamine deficiency identification and treatment in commercial turkeys and coturnix quail. Poultry Sci., 51: 419-423.
  3. Cheng, K.M., Kickman, A.R. and McIntyre, R. (1985). Function of foam from the proctodeal gland of the male Japanese quail. Poultry Sci., 64: 78.
  4. Cunningham, J.J. and Soares, J.H. Jr. (1979). Splenomegaly in Japanese quail fed low vitamin E diets. Nutr. Rep. Int., 19: 471-478.
  5. Cutler, B.A. and Vohra, P. (1977). Pantothenic acid requirements of Japanese quail for growth and production. Poultry Sci., 56: 1707.
  6. Dobalova, M. and Pajtasova, L. (1983). Effect of biotin and ground maize on performance of Japanese quail. Pol'nohospodarstvo., 29: 51-57.
  7. Farrell, D.J., Atmamihardia, S.I. and Pym, R.A.E. (1982). Calorimetric measurement of the energy and nitrogen metabolism of Japanese quail. Br. Poultry Sci., 23: 375-382.
  8. Harland, B.F., Fry, B.E., Jacobs, R.M. and Spivey-Fox, M.R. (1973). Mineral requirements of young Japanese quail. Fed. Proc., 32: 930.
  9. Harland, B.F., Spivey-Fox, M.R. and Fry, B.E. Jr. (1975). Protection against zinc deficiency by prior excess dietary zinc in young Japanese quail. J. Nutr., 105: 1509-1518.
  10. Harland, B.F., Spivey-Fox, M.R. and Fry, B.E. Jr. (1976). Magnesium deficiency, requirement and toxicity in the young Japanese quail. Poultry Sci., 55: 359-364.
  11. Howes, J.R. (1964). Japanese quail as found in Japan. Quail Quarterly, 1: 19-30.
  12. Howes, J.R. (1965). Energy, protein, methionine and lysine requirements for growing and laying coturnix quail. Proc. Southern Agr. Workers 62d Conv., Dallas, Texas, 258.
  13. Jensen, L.S. (1968). Selenium deficiency and impaired reproduction in Japanese quail. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 128: 970-972.
  14. Kienholtz, E.W., Nickels, L.F. and Jacobs, L.C. (1965). Zinc absorption in adult Coturnix quail. Fed. Proc., 24: 171.
  15. Kling, L.J. and Soares, J.H. Jr. (1980). Vitamin E deficiency in the Japanese quail. Poultry Sci., 59: 2353-2354.
  16. Ketola, H.G. and Young, R.J. (1973). The need for dietary choline by young Japanese quail. Poultry Sci., 52: 2362-2363.
  17. Latshaw, J.D. and Jensen, L.S. (1971). Choline level and its effect on egg weight in the Japanese quail. Poultry Sci., 50: 790-794.
  18. Latshaw, J.D. and Jensen, L.S. (1972). Choline deficiency and synthesis of choline from precursors in mature Japanese quail. J. Nutr., 102: 749-756.
  19. Lee, H.B. and Shim, K.F. (1971). Calcium requirement of Japanese quails. Nanyang Univ. Jour. 5: 122-131.
  20. Lee, T.K., Shim, K.F. and Tan, E.L. (1977a). Protein requirement of growing Japanese quails in the tropics. Sing. J. Pri. Ind., 5: 70-81.
  21. Lee, T.K., Shim, K.F. and Tan, E.L. (1977b). Protein requirement of laying Japanese quails in the tropics. Sing. J. Pri. Ind., 5: 82-90.
  22. Lumijarvi, D.H. and Vohra, P. (1976). Studies on the sodium requirement of growing Japanese quail. Poultry Sci., 55: 1410-1414.
  23. Mackova, M., Sommerova, H. and Kazdova, M. (1981). Effect of a supplement of cobalt sulphate on vitamin B12 in liver and caecum of Japanese quail. Praci Vyzkumneho Ustavu Vyzivy Zvirat Pohorelice, 15: 55-61.
  24. Miller, B.F. (1967). Calcium and phosphorus in the diet of coturnix quail. Poultry Sci., 46: 686-692.
  25. National Research Council - National Academy of Sciences. (1969). Coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) - Standards and guidelines for the breeding, care, and management of laboratory animals. NAS Publication No. 1703, Washington, D.C. 50 pp.
  26. National Research Council - National Academy of Sciences. (1977). Nutrient requirements of domestic animals. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 7th Ed. NRC - NAS, Washington, D.C. 62 pp.
  27. Ong, L.L. and Shim, K.F. (1972). The calcium balance in Japanese quails. Nanyang Univ. Jour. 6: 95-105.
  28. Park, I.K. and Marquardt, R.R. (1982). Effects of sulfaguanidine and amino acid imbalances on the induction of niacin deficiency in mature and immature Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Poultry Sci., 61: 1329-1334.
  29. Parrish, D.B. and Al-Hasanbi, S.M. (1983). Requirements and utilization of vitamin A by Japanese quail. Nutr. Rep. Int., 28: 39-50.
  30. Price, F.C. (1968). The effect of vitamin E deficiency on fertility of Coturnix coturnix. Poultry Sci., 47: 1037-1038.
  31. Ramachandran, V. and Arscott, G.H. (1974). Minimum vitamin requirements and apparent vitamin interrelationships for growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Poultry Sci., 53: 1969-1970.
  32. Sanford, J.A. (1957). A progress report of Coturnix quail investigations in Missouri. Proc. North Am. Wildlife Conf., 22 Conf. pp. 316-359.
  33. Shim, K.F. (1985). The effects of maternal riboflavin deficiency on reproductive and embryonic development in Japanese quail. Poultry Sci., 64: 98.
  34. Shim, K.F. (1985). Selenium nutrition in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Poultry Sci., 64: 98.
  35. Shim, K.F. and Boey, H.L. (1988). Thiamin requirements of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica. Nutr.Rep.Int., 37:893-900.
  36. Shim, K.F. and Chen, E.V. (1989). Methionine requirement and its effect on the feather loss of laying Japanese quail. Nutr.Rep.Int.,40:1003-1010.
  37. Shim, K.F. and Chen, E.V. (1990). Biopotency of methionine sources and their effects on sexual maturity of growing Japanese quail. Br. Poultry Sci., 31: 273-282.
  38. Shim, K.F. and Lee, T.K. (1984a). Lysine requirement of growing Japanese quail to five weeks of age. Singapore J. Pri. Ind., 12: 1-10.
  39. Shim, K.F. and Lee, T.K. (1984b). Effect of dietary lysine on egg production of laying Japanese quail. Singapore J. Pri. Ind., 12: 88-97.
  40. Shim, K.F. and Lee, T.K. (1988a). Influence of supplemented methionine in practical rations for young growing Japanese quail. Nutr. Rep. Int., 38: 157-164.
  41. Shim, K.F. and Lee, T.K. (1988b). Methionine requirements of Coturnix coturnix japonica for reproduction using practical diets. Nutr. Rep. Int., 38: 681-686.
  42. Shim, K.F., Phang, V. and Teoh, K.W. (1983). Reproductive performance of Japanese quails. Sing. J. Pri. Ind., 11: 52-60.
  43. Shim, K.F. and Vohra, P. (1984). A review of the nutrition of Japanese quail. World's Poultry Sci. J., 40: 261-274.
  44. Shrivastav, A.K. and Panda, B. (1982). Effect of increasing calorie-protein ratio during growing period (4-5 week) on dressing yield and chemical composition of quail meat. India J. Poult. Sci., 17: 253-256.
  45. Spivey-Fox, M.R. and Jacobs, R.M. (1967). Zinc requirement of the young Japanese quail. Fed. Proc., 26: 1492.
  46. Spivey-Fox, M.R., Hudson, G.A. and Hintz, M.E. (1966). Pantothenic acid requirement of young Japanese quail. Fed. Proc., 25: 721.
  47. Sugahara, K., Kikuchi, H., Kakiuchi, Y. and Kubo, T. (1982). Effect of dietary magnesium level on the growth of male Japanese quail fed on a purified diet. Jap. Poultry Sci., 19: 121-123.
  48. Thompson, J.N. and Scott, M.L. (1967). Selenium deficiency in chicks and quail. Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf. for feed Mfrs., 130-136.
  49. Vohra, P. (1972). Magnesium requirement for survival and growth of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Poultry Sci., 51: 2103-2105.
  50. Vohra, P., Siopes, T.D. and Wilson, W.O. (1979). Egg production and body weight changes of Japanese quail and leghorn hens following deprivation of either supplementary calcium or vitamin D3. Poultry Sci., 58: 432-440.
  51. Wilson, W.O., Abbott, U.K. and Abplanalp, H. (1959). Developmental and physiological studies with a new pilot animal for poultry. Coturnix quail. Poultry Sci., 38: 1260.
  52. Wong, P.C.K., Vohra, P. and Kratzer, F.H. (1977). The folacin requirements of broiler chicks and quail. Poultry Sci., 56: 1852-1860.
  53. Woodard, A.E., Abplanalp, H., Wilson, W.O. and Vohra, P. (1973). Japanese quail husbandry in the laboratory (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Department of Avian Sciences, University of California, Davis, 22 pp.

     


Table 1. Nutrients required in quail diets
________________________________________________________________

Nutrients                           Starting         Laying
                                    and Growing      quail
                                    quail
________________________________________________________________

ME                  kcal/kg          2,800          2,800
Protein                %                24             20
Lysine                 %                 1.2            0.9
Cystine                %                 0.4            0.35
Methionine             %                 0.5            0.45
Met + Cys              %                 0.9            0.8
Arginine               %                 1.4            1.25
Histidine              %                 0.4            0.4
Isoleucine             %                 1.1            1.0
Leucine                %                 1.9            1.7
Phenylalanine          %                 1.1            1.1
Tyrosine               %                 1.0            0.9
Phe + Tyr              %                 2.1            2.0
Threonine              %                 1.2            1.1
Tryptophan             %                 0.25           0.25
Valine                 %                 1.1            1.0
Glycine                %                 1.0            1.0
Serine                 %                 0.7            0.7
Gly + Ser              %                 1.7            1.7

Vitamin A             IU              4,000          4,000
Vitamin D            ICU                600            600
Vitamin E             IU                 40             40
Vitamin K             mg                  5              5
Biotin                mg                  0.12           0.4
Choline               mg              3,500          2,000
Folacin               mg                  0.4            0.5
Niacin                mg                 40             40
Pantothenic acid      mg                 40             40
Pyridoxine            mg                  2              2
Riboflavin            mg                  2              4
Thiamin               mg                  2              2
Calcium                %                  0.8            2.5
Total phosphorus       %                  0.8            0.8
Avail. phosphorus      %                  0.3            0.3
Sodium                 %                  0.12           0.12
Potassium              %                  0.4            0.4
Iron                  mg                120            120
Copper                mg                  5              5
Manganese             mg                 80             80
Zinc                  mg                 75             75
Selenium              mg                  0.1            0.1
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Table 2. Composition of the basal diet (g/kg)
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Ingredient                  Grower diet      Layer diet
________________________________________________________________

Maize                         46.1             49.6
Soyabean meal                 26.8             18.0
Fish meal                      3.0              5.0
Meat and bone meal             5.0              4.0
Groundnut meal                 8.5              4.0
Alfalfa meal                   4.6              8.4
Skimmed milk powder            2.0              2.0
Sodium chloride                0.3              0.2
Dicalcium phosphate            0.2              1.1
Limestone dust                 --               4.8
Lysine                         1.0              0.6
Methionine                     0.5              0.3
Premix *                       2.0              2.0
________________________________________________________________


*  Each kilogram of diet contains: retinol acetate, 30 mg;
cholecalciferol, 2 mg; alpha-tocopherol, 25 mg; menadione, 3 mg;
riboflavin, 8 mg; nicotinic acid, 60 mg; pantothenic acid, 15 mg;
folic acid, 1.5 mg; thiamin, 2 mg; pyridoxine, 3 mg; cyanocobalamin,
0.015 mg; choline chloride, 800 mg; Fe, 30 mg; Co, 1 mg; Mn, 100 mg;
Cu, 10 mg; Zn, 80 mg; I, 2 mg; Se, 0.1 mg; Mg, 50 mg.


 

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